A tecnologia educacional é o conjunto de conhecimentos, aplicações e dispositivos que permitem a aplicação de ferramentas tecnológicas no campo da educação. Em outras palavras, trata-se da solução de problemas educacionais por meio do uso da tecnologia da informação.

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Graças à tecnologia educacional, os professores podem planejar o processo de aprendizagem e otimizar a tarefa de ensino. Isso é possível graças ao uso de recursos técnicos, como computadores (computadores), televisões etc.

Embora ainda existam professores que consideram que os chamados “métodos tradicionais” continuam a ter validade e valor quando se trata de ensinar os alunos, há outros que são totalmente a favor do uso da tecnologia educacional. Os últimos consideram que o uso de computadores, Internet, telefones celulares, tablets ou lousas digitais, por exemplo, traz consigo uma longa lista de vantagens, como as seguintes:
-É um caminho para a educação se adaptar completamente aos dias de hoje, o que está de acordo com a era tecnológica que tivemos que viver.

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  • Permite aos professores dispor de uma longa lista de recursos e ferramentas para apoiar a explicação do assunto.
    -Dá aos alunos a oportunidade de entender melhor o conteúdo da aula, já que tudo é mais visual e interativo.
    -Também se torna uma ótima maneira para as crianças mergulharem nas questões e até fortalecê-las graças aos jogos online, caças ao tesouro, blogs …
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Por todas estas vantagens e muitas outras é por que a própria ONU (Organização das Nações Unidas) encoraja, apóia e incentiva não só a apostar em novas formas de educação, mas, acima de tudo, a integrar perfeitamente a tecnologia no campo. educacional

A tecnologia educacional não é nova: tem sido aplicada há décadas em escolas e escolas em geral. Quando um professor projeta um documentário ou usa uma tela para exibir apresentações antes de seus alunos, ele está aproveitando a tecnologia educacional. O método foi aprimorado, no entanto, a partir da ascensão da computação e do mundo digital.

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O modo de implementação da tecnologia educacional também mudou ao longo dos anos. No início, as instituições costumavam ter um laboratório, sala de aula ou consultório especializado em informática, com computadores e outros equipamentos tecnológicos. Em seguida, os computadores tornaram-se portáteis e começaram a se integrar nas salas de uso diário. Atualmente, a tecnologia educacional chega até à casa dos estudantes através da Internet.

Podemos encontrar o uso de tecnologia educacional em diferentes fases do processo de educação. Suponha que um professor projete um filme educacional na sala de aula. Então ele entrega um DVD para cada aluno com mais informações. O educador finalmente pede aos alunos para realizar um trabalho prático sobre o visto, que deve ser publicado em um site. Todas essas atividades podem ser desenvolvidas graças à aplicação de tecnologia educacional.

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Atualmente, dentro do setor de ensino, há muitas propostas, workshops, aulas e fóruns de educação que giram em torno da tecnologia educacional, como seria o caso de “RELATEC“, que é a “Revista Latino-Americana de Tecnologia Educacional”.

Imaterialidade, no sentido de que a matéria-prima em torno da qual desenvolvem sua atividade é a informação, a informação em múltiplos códigos e formas: visuais, auditivas, audiovisuais, textuais, sejam elas estacionárias ou móveis, individuais ou em combinação. Interconexão, porque apesar de as novas tecnologias tenderem a ser apresentadas de forma independente, elas oferecem grandes possibilidades de combinar e expandir suas possibilidades individuais desta forma, como quando a televisão por satélite e a cabo são combinadas ou quando uma multimídia é incluída em um endereço da Web para o qual o computador, se estiver conectado à Internet, será movido. Essas conexões permitem a construção de novas realidades expressivas e comunicativas, como na combinação de imagem, som e texto para a construção de plataformas multimídia.

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A interatividade está permitindo que o controle da comunicação, que na mídia tradicional está localizada no transmissor, esteja se movendo em direção ao receptor, o que determinará o tempo e o modo de uso. Com isto, o receptor desempenhará um papel importante na construção da sua mensagem, bem como, por sua vez, o transmissor de mensagens

A instantaneidade é outra das suas características definidoras, uma vez que permitem romper as barreiras espaciais e colocar em contato direto com as pessoas, banco de dados, etc. imediatamente. Eles convertem o problema da transmissão ou recepção de informações, além daquelas de acesso ideológico e social, em um exclusivamente técnico, isto é, do potencial tecnológico dos meios utilizados. Serviços de videoconferência, como chat, na Internet, favorecem que usuários remotos no espaço possam trocar mensagens e opiniões de forma interativa ao mesmo tempo. Por outro lado, é importante destacar que outra das características das novas tecnologias é a qualidade da imagem e do som, graças à digitalização de sinais visuais, auditivos ou de dados. O progresso foi tal que em tão pouco tempo modificaram a oferta do treinamento ou melhor, as possibilidades que, em linhas gerais, são as seguintes: expansão da oferta de informação, criação de ambientes mais flexíveis para o aprendizado, eliminação de barreiras espaço-temporais entre o professor e os alunos, aumento das modalidades de comunicação, melhoria de cenários e ambientes interativos, favorecendo a aprendizagem independente e a autoaprendizagem, bem como colaborativa e em grupos, quebrando cenários clássicos de formação, limitados às instituições escola, oferecer novas possibilidades de orientação e tutoria dos alunos e facilitar um treinamento permanente.

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Hoje existe uma diversidade de ferramentas tecnológicas aplicadas à educação, dentre as quais podemos citar: o uso educacional de som, televisão educativa, vídeo em educação e treinamento, ciência da computação, multimídia e hipertextos em o ensino; videoconferência e seu uso na educação e na internet aplicada à educação.
A UTILIZAÇÃO EDUCACIONAL DO SOM
Som como recurso: uso do ambiente sonoro tanto do ponto de vista do material do equipamento, quanto do material do passo feito pelos próprios participantes ou pelo professor, como um instrumento a ser utilizado em diferentes momentos de nossa atuação. Aprender a ouvir para melhorar o hábito de ouvir pode ser outro dos grandes objetivos do uso desse meio. Para isso você pode ter exercícios simples, tais como: descobrir quantas vezes uma certa palavra é repetida; continue a identificar sons diferentes; siga uma série de instruções; use o contexto do discurso explicando o significado de palavras desconhecidas; reconstruir uma história a partir de efeitos sonoros mal colocados; etc.

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SOM COMO ANÁLISE CRÍTICA DA INFORMAÇÃO.
Neste aspecto existe outra possibilidade didática. A reflexão crítica é necessária antes da informação que chega, antes do fluxo vertiginoso de mensagens, diante do emaranhado das redes de comunicação. É necessário equipar-se com instrumentos que lhes permitam analisar, decodificar e compreender as múltiplas mensagens.

A Internet e a diversidade de tecnologias atualmente disponíveis possibilitam a disponibilidade de um rádio escolar cuja acessibilidade é possível através de pouco mais que um programa de criação de páginas, superando as dificuldades econômicas e jurídicas que o rádio analógico apresenta em muitas ocasiões.
TELEVISÃO EDUCACIONAL E ESCOLAR.
Contemplar conteúdos que tenham algum tipo de interesse educativo e / ou educacional (questões de saúde, trânsito, economia, biologia, línguas, …) mas que por algum motivo não fazem parte do currículo escolar e visam toda a população. Busca, como função básica, a suplantação do sistema escolar formal, com os mesmos objetivos que o sistema geral de ensino, desde o nível elementar até os cursos de atualização universitária; as abordagens de design são pedagógicas. Pretende-se adquirir os objetivos do sistema aos sujeitos, que por uma razão ou outra, não podem frequentar as salas de aula convencionais.

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Em relação ao conteúdo, ele é estruturado de acordo com os princípios da didática de cada um dos sujeitos, sempre de acordo com a peculiaridade do meio. Ou o que é o mesmo, leva em conta uma série de características que devem ser cumpridas por este tipo de programas, para levá-los do ponto de vista didático.

O VÍDEO NO ENSINO E FORMAÇÃO
Quando se fala de vídeo no ensino, deve-se diferenciar entre o vídeo didático e o uso didático do vídeo. Por vídeo didático entende-se aquele que foi projetado e produzido para transmitir alguns conteúdos, habilidades ou atividades e que, em função de seus sistemas simbólicos, o modo de estruturá-los e utilizá-lo, propiciar o aprendizado nos alunos; Ao contrário, com seu uso didático, faz-se referência a uma visão mais ampla das diferentes formas de uso que pode desempenhar no ensino. Nesse sentido, Martínez Sánchez (1992) explica que as funções do vídeo na educação são didáticas, formação e aperfeiçoamento de professores, recurso de expressão estética e instrumento de comunicação e pesquisa.

A TECNOLOGIA MULTIMÉDIA
Tecnologias multimídia combinam sons, fotografias, vídeos, textos, etc. A tela torna-se uma zona de percepção na qual elementos de natureza diversa são colocados e que respondem, essencialmente, aos códigos visuais que envolvem a aprendizagem e envolvem o aumento da competência comunicativa nos usuários. Com a integração favorecida pelos diferentes avanços tecnológicos no campo audiovisual e no campo da computação em meados dos anos 80, a configuração de novas mídias nas quais as capacidades comunicativas do audiovisual e da mídia se fundiram e se fundiram tem emergido. comunicação digital, resultando em multimídia interativa.

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Nesta ordem, “a videoconferência é um sistema de comunicação que permite realizar reuniões coletivas entre várias pessoas que estão em lugares distantes. É feito em tempo real, via telefone, e a imagem e o som são transmitidos em ambas as direções … “(Oliver, 2001, www.uib.es/depart/gte/oliver.html). É uma das ferramentas com mais possibilidades para os professores. Ser capaz de ver de um lugar para outro onde você não pode ir é fascinante. Como a televisão, a videoconferência pode se tornar uma janela aberta para o mundo que permite expandir os horizontes de professores e alunos. É possível sentir-se próximo, ter especialistas de outros lugares, de outras línguas, de outras culturas presentes, para que possam enriquecer os processos de ensino-aprendizagem com sua experiência e conhecimento.

Existem áreas rurais onde existem escolas unitárias, com um professor a servir alunos de todos os níveis de ensino. Esses alunos muitas vezes não têm acesso a especialistas, como idiomas, música, orientação … com a videoconferência, eles podem concluir seu aprendizado sob a orientação de professores especialistas. O trabalho colaborativo como uma metodologia de aprendizagem expande suas possibilidades com participantes do grupo de diferentes sites com os quais eles podem se comunicar e interagir com a videoconferência.

INTERNET APLICADA À EDUCAÇÃO
A internet está oferecendo novos espaços que superam as coordenadas físicas de lugar (a sala de aula) e de tempo (horários de aula), para repensar os processos de ensino-aprendizagem, que abordam diferentes possibilidades e abordagens para a integração da rede na rede. educação: aspectos tecnológicos, estratégias didáticas, desenho de conteúdos educativos em suporte web, o papel do professor na web, bem como exemplos de usos específicos como webquest, wiki ou weblog.

Conectar computadores em uma rede permite que os cenários de comunicação e informações compartilhadas sejam estendidos. Do campo educacional (de educação infantil, primária, secundária ou universitária) permite abrir a escola a inúmeras fontes de informação, materiais educativos e pessoas; expandir cenários de aprendizagem e experiências educacionais com outros colegas e professores; e com metodologias de trabalho baseadas na participação e pesquisa ativa do aluno.

Considerando as possibilidades educacionais, diferentes características da web podem ser apontadas como: caráter multiformato ou capacidade multimídia, estrutura hipertextual da informação, quantidade de informação disponível, atualização da informação, compatibilidade entre as plataformas. Embora especificando nas aplicações educacionais da rede, Salinas (1999) propõe:

Redes de salas de aula ou circuitos de aprendizagem,
Sistemas de distribuição de cursos on-line
Experiências de educação a distância e aprendizagem aberta,
Por outro lado, Bartolomé (1999), agrupa as aplicações em rede em:

A escola na web,
A intranet da escola,
A escola é a web
Escolas da Web.

Da mesma forma, Cabero e Román (2006) coletam diferentes “e-atividades”: visitas a sites, fazendo exemplos, apresentações de estudantes, blogs, caças ao tesouro, wikis, círculos de aprendizagem, trabalho de projeto na web e estudo dos casos. Além disso, acessar o conteúdo do curso, realizar tarefas e exercícios, entregá-los ao professor ou publicá-los na web para que sejam acessíveis ao resto dos colegas, são algumas das tarefas que o aluno realiza nos processos de ensino. aprendizagem
Para executar essas tarefas, existem diferentes tipos de serviços e ferramentas da Internet, como transferência de arquivos (FTP), conexão remota ou telnet, a própria Web ou mecanismos de pesquisa, entre outros. Mais especificamente, ferramentas são necessárias para copiar documentos entre o computador e o espaço da rede, conectar-se a um computador específico onde um material de banco de dados ou simulação reside, compartilhar arquivos entre um grupo de trabalho ou buscar informações (texto, áudio, vídeo, URLs, software …) através de motores gerais ou temáticos.

Todas essas ferramentas envolvem um conjunto de tecnologias para facilitar os processos de ensino-aprendizagem à distância. Ainda que sua escolha deva ser considerada a partir dos processos comunicativos que vão ocorrer: a dinâmica da comunicação, o papel dos participantes e as necessidades comunicativas. Ou seja, contemplando o processo de comunicação como um processo social enquadrado primeiro em uma instituição de ensino ou como uma atividade de sala de aula e, em segundo lugar, a partir das características particulares do próprio processo de comunicação.

No entanto, deve-se notar que, com as mudanças apontadas trará uma série de conseqüências nos papéis que os professores desempenham nesses novos ambientes e, nesse sentido, Gisbert (2002) afirma que o professor da sociedade do conhecimento desempenhará uma série de papéis. básicos, tais como: consultores de informação, colaboradores de grupos, trabalhadores solitários, facilitadores, desenvolvedores de cursos e materiais e supervisores acadêmicos. O professor, desse modo, deixa de ser um especialista em conteúdo para um facilitador de aprendizado, o que pressupõe que ele faça diferentes perguntas, como: conceber experiências de aprendizagem para os alunos, oferecendo uma estrutura inicial para os alunos começarem a aprender. interaja, incentive os alunos a se auto-estudarem ou a projetar diferentes perspectivas sobre o mesmo assunto.

Increasing number of college students in need of student assistance

The student care area in public universities can no longer meet the growing demand each year. They are students who pass to the University, but have difficulty keeping up. According to the Dean of Student Affairs at the Federal University of Parana (UFPR) tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado, Professor Maria Rita Cesar, “With the very similar annual budget from year to year, we can no longer meet all the demand for student assistance for students who fill the profile. vulnerability situation “.

O aumento no orçamento mais significativo para assistência estudantil acontece durante os Governos Lula e Dilma. - Créditos: Marcos Solivan

The student assistance policy at UFPR consists of a set of grants paid to students through a socioeconomic assessment process. They are: Stay Assistance, Meal Assistance, Housing Assistance and Day Care Assistance. The four grants make up the PROBEM – Economic Benefits Program for Maintenance of Undergraduate Students and Vocational Education of UFPR, which has resources from the National Student Assistance Plan (PNAES) created in 2010, in the Lula Government. According to Maria Rita, “These resources reach 15% of the undergraduate students. However, there are quite a large number of students who are assessed as being in a situation of socioeconomic vulnerability, but are not served by resource constraints. Each year, the demand for aid increases exponentially. ”

The most significant increase in student assistance budget occurred during the Lula and Dilma Governments. From 2013 to 2015, the value grew 61%, from R $ 617 million in 2013 to R $ 995 million in 2015 tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. From 2016, during the Temer Government, the values ​​for PNAES accompany the cut in funds in universities. In 2017, the student assistance resource drops again to 987 million.

Claim for more funds

Forums such as ANDIFES and FONAPRACE – Forum of Student and Community Affairs Deans, and student representations have been claiming the need to increase the PNAES budget to meet the changing socioeconomic profile of students at Brazilian public universities. According to the coordinator of the UFPR Central Student Directory, Vanessa Domingos, “when the Minister of Education says that the University is not for everyone and the president makes it clear that he will pursue the Universities, there is concern on our part. Since the PEC of Expenditure, the University has been receiving systematic cuts ”. Student assistance, she said, “is not a handout, but a right for the student to have access to university.”

Student Assistance Grows in Lula and Dilma Governments

Resources devoted to student care actions have grown strongly in Brazil since 2008.
Students report difficulties in completing college

“I live in the Metropolitan Region, wake up at six in the morning to take my daughter to school and I go to my compulsory internship. In the afternoon I take two buses to get to UFPR tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. I’ll be back home at midnight. Combining studies, maternity and the financial part is what weighs the most. ”Marcela Negri, 32, Pedagogy student since 2016.

“I wake up at 5 am and go to college, have breakfast at the University Restaurant. I do internship at night. My family is all unemployed and the biggest difficulties are in the transportation and acquisition of teaching materials. ”Juliana Ertes, 19 years old, student of Letters at UFPR since 2017.

Understand the Student Care Plan

The National Student Assistance Plan (Pnaes) supports the retention of low-income students enrolled in face-to-face undergraduate courses at federal higher education institutions (Ifes). The program primarily serves students from the public basic education system or with a per capita family income of up to one and a half minimum wages. It offers assistance to student housing, food, transportation, health, digital inclusion, culture, sports, day care and educational support. The actions are performed by the educational institution itself, which must monitor and evaluate the development of the program.

In general, classical youth studies, especially those that seek to emphasize the different ways of being young in modern society, take work as a privileged indicator to identify, in contrast, two segments of youth: on the one hand, the group of young students; on the other, the one formed by young workers tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. The notion of work, working as a watershed, becomes a rigid milestone: what characterizes the young worker is his early insertion in the labor market, through the exercise of an occupation of low prestige and low pay. In an opposite situation are young people who, by extending their education, including higher education, also delay their entry into the labor market. However, once inserted in this market, young graduates start to occupy prestigious positions and earn high salaries. What is behind this kind of analysis is the idea that work and study are mutually exclusive situations. Neither higher education is part of the universe of young workers nor is work considered by young university students.

It is true that the aim of most of these studies is to seek out what is most specific to these youth groups, and thus activities related to work or student status become the axis around which their identities, involving symbolic and political aspects are constituted. (1) It is within this framework of a differential sociology of youth that J. Habermas, LF Ch. Oehler, and F. Weitz discuss the political behavior of students. (2) The specificity of the political behavior of this segment is explained by the particular way of group insertion in society. That is, it is as a non-professional, a non-worker, that the student tends to guide his political behavior.

“The student’s situation is, first and foremost, peculiar. On the one hand, he is considered an adult and, on the other, he has no license to be so. It has often been noted that it is in some sense , of a conserved child situation, despite the physical maturity and certain adult attributes (…) Disconnected from the parental home, but not yet incorporated into professional life, not yet affected by the specific conditions of a profession, students appear to be gifted. the privilege of being able to distance oneself from the competition of interests and ideologies. The “formation-related” interests of the students are transitory “. (3)

It does not matter here to discuss the thesis supported by the authors, that the students’ lack of interest in politics is due to the group’s condition of transience, its situation as apprentices of professionals tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. (4) What is important to note is that the construction of the argument accentuates the opposition between work and study. In contrast to students, other segments of youth involved since adolescence in professional activities would express greater interest in politics.

It should also be noted that most of these analyzes, especially those aimed at characterizing the young student, originated in a context in which the university was very different from what it is today. For a long time, the primary function of the university was the training of professionals (5) recruited from elite children. Once graduates of higher schools, these young people began to fill the political and administrative frameworks of society. At that time, work was excluded from the youth’s life during the period of professional apprenticeship. On the other hand, access to higher education by young people from families without resources and who therefore needed to support themselves during their studies was very rare. When it happened that one or the other young person crossed the barriers of the university, the student not only gained notoriety, but began to embody the very myth of liberal ideology. (6)

In short, from the perspective of youth sociology, university students and workers as distinct groups repeat the division of society into dichotomous classes. The specificities of the groups – university students or workers – only reflected the way in which society reproduced itself.

The expansion of the urban middle classes, the result of the processes of industrialization and urbanization, contributed to alter this scenario, even driving the transformation of the university itself. The phenomenon is not specific to Brazil. It is verified almost simultaneously in all countries that have gone through a rapid process of tertiarization and urbanization and have broadened the middle sectors of society. If, before, the university was aimed almost exclusively at young people of the upper classes, after these transformations and also interfering with them, an increasing number of students have reached higher education. The changes were not limited to enrollment expansion tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. New institutions and careers were created to cope with this explosion in demand for higher education. The new student contingent who arrives at the university no longer has the homogeneity of the past. The pressure for higher education comes from different segments of society: young women who are no longer satisfied with a high school diploma or “normalists”, young people from families with no higher education tradition, older people already in the job market. work in search of a better professional qualification etc. (7) With this, the clientele becomes extremely diversified and the expansion of enrollment does not only mean quantitative increase.

If, as we have seen, over a long period of time, work and higher education functioned as constitutive elements of identities and destinies of very specific segments of youth, these situations are no longer so exclusionary, but sometimes even assume some complementarity. That is, the transformations that occurred in the higher education system, although only slightly touched the problem of the democratization of education in Brazil, (8) ended up contributing to bring the theme of the student working inside the university.

Studies conducted from the 1970s onwards soon recognized not only the heterogeneity of the student who was entering university, but also showed that most of these students reconcile work with their higher education. However, the idea tends to be maintained that work and study constitute exclusionary situations.

In 1973, Ophelina Rabello, in a study of the profile of the university student in Brazil, indicated the presence of a large contingent of working students. Given these data, the author questioned the existing dichotomy between study and work:

“Overriding the notorious fact that study itself is an intensive form of labor, one wonders whether studying and working would translate into insurmountable antinomies or even complement one another, even creating highly advantageous demands and reciprocities?”

The author’s argument is that there are situations in which study and work may converge towards an effort of “self-consistency of the human personality of the university student, in terms of self-overcoming to full autonomy (…) tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado; cases in which work-related study could “translate into routine, inner dispersion, mediocrity and disenchantment, even frustration of both behavioral behaviors, causing stress, pre-neuroses with the possible loss of the substance of both activities in the disappointing phenomenon of dropout? “. (10) According to Rabello, the chance that each of these perspectives has to be realized depends on a wide range of implications contained in the study and work injunction.

For the author, there are basically three situations: the young man who only studies, the one who studies and works, and the young man who studies and needs to work as a survival imperative. These situations “present diverse psychological and behavioral faces, bringing to the university campus problems that are also diversified, urgent and of undeniable relevance.” (11) Thus, the author begins to present what, in her view, constitute the pros and cons of each of them, always with a view to learning, that is, “self-fulfilling personal empowerment” (p. 18).

Although Rabello tries to overcome the dichotomy between study and work, showing that the conciliation of these two activities can be viable – and even desirable -, the conception of work actually appears subordinated to the study-learning process. That is, work is only desirable if it is integrated with the dynamics of the educational process, as part of the effort to “integrate knowledge and action, theory and practice, information and training, democratization and effectiveness, economic and social development and individual maturity, dialogue and didactic methodology “. (12) When student work is motivated by economic necessity or a yearning for autonomy from the family, Rabello tends to emphasize the “dilemmatic” character of choices. In other words, it sees in the conciliation attempt a permanent conflict of options. With this perspective, the author ends up emphasizing what she herself had questioned tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. The antinomy work and study no longer appears as insurmountable, but as almost impossible to transpose, given the recommendations on the conditions under which the injunction of these two activities could present itself positively. Student work impairs their performance in learning activities, as well as their degree of involvement with the academic environment. It is as if, by working, the young man no longer fully enjoys his student status and the work experience is displaced. Working students are never the rule (even if numerically they are the majority), but they are the exception. It is the deviant in the sense of being half outside – worker – and half inside university – student.

Student work is never treated as an option, but always appears as compulsory. That is, the early insertion of young people – before completing their higher education – in the labor market always appears to be linked to economic and social conditions. Thus, the youth’s work is returned to its family origin in terms of social classes.

Student work is now widespread at the university and can therefore no longer be seized as a back-office activity during the period of higher education. On the other hand, as the university public continues to be recruited from the middle class, we can no longer restrict the explanation of student work to socioeconomic constraints. Although important to justify much. For working students, they do not account for all the variables that involve opting for work.

The following analysis of the working student focuses on incorporating new explanatory elements. These elements, broadly speaking, refer, on the one hand, to the very diversity of the forms of organization and functioning of the courses and careers and, on the other, to the insertion of students in a broader category – youth -, which dissolves the differences between workers. and students.

Work and higher education: converging options

More than half of the students surveyed (13) – 54.6% – work, representing 1,216 young people in a universe of 2,226 tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. Twenty years ago, Rabello had already pointed out that half of the university students – 48.9% – of the public school day courses worked. Of the students who were not working, about 24.5% had already worked. (14)

If work is not an entirely new phenomenon in college life, what has actually changed in recent years?

According to our data, the distribution by age and gender of the working student is not very different from the sample set. They are most numerous in the 21-24 age bracket, followed by the 18-21 age bracket, the same age brackets as most third year tertiary students (Table 1). The average age of working male students is 24.6 years, while that of women is 22.6 years.

This applies to all courses without regard to the differences in age distribution depending on the careers and institutions that students attend. Thus, for example, USP philosophy students who work are older, generally older than 25, which corresponds to the age distribution of the students in this course.

Students who do not work in almost all courses tend to focus on the younger age group: between eighteen and twenty. For both sexes, 20.6 years is the average age of those who do not work.

Rabello, in his 1973 survey, showed that the number of students working among men was much larger than among women. At that time there was already a relative balance between students regarding gender, based on 55.3% males and 44.7% females. In our sample, although the student population is equally distributed among male and female students – including a small predominance of women (54.3%) – there are also more men working: 59% of male students work against 51% of female students. women (Table 2).

Before moving further into the analysis, you need to make some considerations about what work is for the college student. Or rather, what the student identifies as work when he / she answers the questionnaire in the affirmative.

Work does not always mean a formal contract, job security, right salary at the end of the month. That is, the student who claims to work does not always have a job. Most of the time it provides services for which it receives remuneration: tutoring, copying, typing, translation, participation in fairs and seasonal events, transcription of research tapes and many others, are periodic occupations, but nevertheless not disregarded when the subject is. “job” tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. To work means, in many cases, to earn some income by performing any task. When they say they work, students are not always working – and consequently have no income – but invariably are willing to perform tasks that earn them some money. Finally, these students define themselves as participants in the job market.

It is this self-assessment that we take into account when interpreting data about student work. If more than half of the sample says they work, and of those who do not work, they say they want to work before the end of the course, work is a fundamental dimension in the lives of young people. It works both for your maintenance as students and as a symbolic reference in this transitional phase that touches the adult world. Seen from this angle, the work evokes the theme of autonomy, both on the side of self-sufficiency in relation to the family, and by what this autonomy enables, which is the engagement in a young lifestyle: housing conditions, consumption, leisure etc.

The work for the university has a much broader meaning than the financial determinants that act for its entry into the labor market. Their unstable occupations do not always allow for real independence from the family. But it must be understood that changes in the labor market have made jobs more temporary, and changes between intergenerational relations have made an extension of the period of financial semi-dependability tolerable.

The following data, although often discussed from socioeconomic variables, seek in reality to draw the conditions that determine the work of the university student and what this represents in terms of the construction of a young identity.

Work, careers and institutions

The student’s work, as indicated above, is determined by the student’s own condition. It is worth asking what is the cost-benefit calculation made by the student when deciding to reconcile work and study. That is, what factors drive your entry into the job market?

The university, as we all know, is not homogeneous. The requirements of each course are different. Some work full time and assume total dedication, others have less workload and can be day or night. Also the assessment of learning varies between institutions and courses, using stricter or looser criteria. Private institutions set very different tuition rates, even when comparing the same courses. They are also widely dispersed in urban space, making them more accessible to some students and more distant to others. Considering the heterogeneity of this higher education system, it is evident that the combination of study and work depends on the facilities or difficulties that each career imposes. The percentage of students working in public institutions is equivalent to that of non-working students in private institutions. In other words, 33.2% of public school students work against 66.9% in this situation in the private sector.

Distinctions between students from public and private institutions have been the subject of discussion for some time. Not only have educational policymakers been busy with the issue, but more and more often the media has fueled the discussion. Very recently, a report entitled “Public University is not the place of a poor student”, published in the newspaper O Estado de São Paulo, showed that, in Brazil, public higher education was not intended, as it should, according to the report. underprivileged students. On the contrary, in schools like USP only students from the upper classes would have access. In the first part of the article we used data from a survey conducted by NAEG / LTSP on the university entrance exam profile. (15) In the second part, the report described the daily lives of two students: the first, upper middle class, takes architecture. and urbanism at USP, he attended first and high school in private schools, has a car, which makes him spend little time on transportation, and does not work. The second does not enjoy this privileged situation. He has always attended public schools, lives in São Miguel Paulista, works in São Paulo as an art finalist in an advertising agency and is a student at Mogi das Cruzes University. Without a car, he travels about two hundred kilometers a day, between buses, subways and trains, so that he can work and study. These students’ daily lives served to illustrate, in a contrasting way, the student profile of a public institution such as USP, and the profile of thousands of students from private schools. It opposes the privileged to working students, excluded from the public system.

While this is partly true, this kind of analysis leads to a caricature view of students. Behind this contrastive characterization we find a very diverse student in both the public and private sectors.

You must analyze the performance requirements of each career or course to understand how this selection process operates.

Studying the profile of students from different careers, we find that some are characterized by a fairly homogeneous clientele from the point of view of income and others receive students who are distributed across all income brackets, even though this distribution is not balanced. But one should not identify the careers in which the student group is homogeneous as elite courses. It can be both a homogeneous group because it comes from the middle and upper classes, and it can bring together students from poorer backgrounds and no family tradition in university courses. This selection depends on the criteria for access to these courses and the facilities they offer or not for incorporating student workers. On the other hand, careers that recruit a heterogeneous clientele are not, as one might suppose, the most democratic. They include all (or almost all) income brackets, which means that they live with the rich and poor, both with very different proportions. Probably these courses allow for some flexibility in student performance, which guarantees a small space for underprivileged layers.
Socially homogeneous and heterogeneous careers can be identified within both the public and private sectors. From this perspective, the attachment of the student who works with a public or private institution is only one of the dimensions of the analysis and not a condition for the youth to enter the job market.

The schedule of the courses is fundamental in this sense. Of the working students, 93.4% attend part-time courses: 66.4% are evening students, 27.0% are day students and only 6.6% are full-time students.

We must then ask: what careers and what areas of knowledge enable or hinder student work?

As indicated in the table above, the Health and Biological courses selected in our sample have the lowest percentages of working students. This is because, in general, their courses are available only full time, which makes it impossible, in most cases, to engage the student in only one out-of-school activity. The courses in dentistry, biology, nutrition and medicine are exemplary in this regard. Of the 41 dental students who work, which represents 20.9% of the total students surveyed in this course, 61.0% attend the USP night course and only 12% are students from a private university (Unicastelo). In the case of researched biology courses, the opposite is true: of the working students, only 25.8% are from Unicamp, where the course only works full time. The vast majority (74.2%) of working students attend a school where the course is taught at night. Nutrition students appear to be following the same trend. Although working students make up just over a third of the total sample (31.8%), the period of the course is fundamental in the distribution of this contingent. Where the course is taught part-time (morning), the percentage of working students tends to be about three times higher (76.2%) than in a school where the course works only full-time (23.8%). ). In the case of medicine, the percentage of students who combine work and study is very low – 9.8% (20), and 90% of the cases are from the Jundiaí school. Although in this school the course also requires its students, theoretically, full dedication, in practice the schedules are more flexible, which allows the student to work or, not being a resident of the city, travel daily.

In the Humanities and Applied Social Sciences courses, the working students are the vast majority. They reach 72.0% in business administration, 71.3% in pedagogy, 68.8% in law and 62.9% in philosophy. Of the most recent vocational-type careers, the tourism course concentrates the largest number of young people working. In this course 66.4% work, against 52.7% of students in this condition in the course of publicity, for example. All of these courses are offered part-time, in all periods (morning, afternoon and evening) or in just one or two shifts. In the courses of pedagogy, business administration, law, philosophy and tourism, although working students tend to concentrate at night, the percentage of workers in other periods is quite significant, as indicated in the previous table.

Exact courses, in turn, have some peculiarities. Although almost all of them are offered part-time and full-time (computer engineering at Unicamp is the only one that works only full-time), what happens is a balanced distribution between working and non-working students, with a small margin. advantage to the latter. It seems that the timing of the courses, in the case of the exact sciences, has less weight for student work than the differences between the institutions where they are taught. In Unicamp courses, for example, all offered during the day, night and full time periods, the percentage of working students is quite low compared to the percentage found in the same courses offered by other researched institutions. The case of electrical engineering is a good example: while at Unicamp only 12.9% of students work, 16 at a private university – the São Francisco University in Itatiba, where the course only works at night – working students arrive at 97.0%. Similar situation is that of the data processing course: at FATEC, 33.3% of the students, in a universe of 26, work and are distributed in a balanced way in the three periods of operation of the course; At Tabajara College, a private isolated school that offers the course only at night, 10 of the 11 students surveyed work. Also in the computer science course in an isolated school – the Piracicabao School of Engineering percentage of working students is over 80%. Still in this school, the course is only offered at night.